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Urbanization is the transformation of rural areas into cities. Through the process of urbanization, a particular section of the population from the rural areas moves to cities. Urbanization has led to increased opportunities in job, higher education, improvements in technologies and easier access to basic facilities. Urbanization has led to advancement in the technologies in the industries. This has also provided the citizens with different resources such as electricity, transportation, healthcare facilities, clean water, entertainment and so on. Urbanization has also cause negative impacts on the world. The process of urbanization has led to increase in the growth of population, congestion of roads and traffic, rise in the crime rates, deforestation, depletion of natural resources, pollution and so on.

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Main Body

Urbanization is a typical attribute of the human civilisation and the center of social life, politics and the economy. It is a term derived from the Latin word “urb” that implies city. The main need for urbanization is that people who are under poverty pushes themselves forward towards the progress of industrialised urban centers. If the development is not administered correctly, it can lead to the rise in the level of crimes, pollution and slum areas. Urbanization has more disadvantages than advantages. However, with correct policies and sustainable ways of land use, the growth in the urban regions can enhance and the development in these areas can thrive efficiently.

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Urbanization is one of the most popular trends in today’s world. It is the movement of the population from a rural region to a city. It is one of the most common economic characteristics where there is a shift in the population and growth in the process of industrialisation. The process of urbanization holds two common meanings – demographical and sociological. The demographical urbanization refers to the balance of the population in the region that resides in the cities. On the other hand, the sociological urbanization refers to the behaviours, institutions and other worldly things that have an impact on the urban areas.

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Urbanization occurs due to the huge opportunities and better living standard. It is predicted by the experts that by the end of 2050, 64% of the developing nations and 84% of the developed nations will become urbanized. One of the major causes of urbanization is employment. The movement of the rural population to the urban regions is mainly because of food, shelter and job opportunities. Political chaos plays a vital role in the process of urbanization. Some economic factors such as poverty, issues faced by farmers, migration to cities in search of jobs are also responsible for the process of urbanization in the world.

Another important reason behind urbanization is the facilities regarding high-quality education. The urban regions offers scope for studying in technical universities and colleges that attracts the students from the rural regions to the cities. Environmental deterioration, imbalances in the ecology, expansion of industries and mining hampers the natural conditions for agriculture relied households and thus contribute to urbanization.

Another essential cause of urbanization is the social cause. Many young citizens shifts from urban areas to the rural areas to escape the conservative culture and search for a better lifestyle. The urban regions contains pubs and clubs that attracts the young citizens.

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Urbanization comes with lot of benefits. It provides access to efficient resources such as electricity, housing, clean water and basic necessities of lives than the rural regions. Urbanization offers improved access to essential facilities such as entertainment, education, transportation and healthcare facilities. The two major end products of urbanization are commercialization and industrialization. Urbanizations are critical disseminators and creators of knowledge and values. The geographical closeness of different people promotes the generation of new ideas. Urbanization leads to technological development and administration of different technologies. The people of urban regions experiences and discovers the latest technological developments that contradicts with the rural individuals who are ignorant of the current events. Moreover, some or most of the resources remain inaccessible to the rural households.

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Urbanization has made life more affordable that has led to the rise in the level of population. The migration of citizens from the rural areas to the urban areas leads to overcrowdings and blocking of transportation and public spaces. The growth of population is one of the major factors behind the rise in the level of unemployment with a rise in the cost of living. Urbanization has to high level of competition  in different fields leading to the attainment of senior positions. It has also boosted the rental amounts and the accommodations of slums. Urbanization also leads to inadequate facilities and promotes problems such as diarrhoea, plague and typhoid. This has led to the rise in rate of crime, thefts, murders, kidnaps, rapes and hijackings. Road congestion and traffic jams are two major problems faced by the citizens in urban regions. Hence, urbanization is both the solution and harm to the society. With the huge level of benefits, the rate of urbanization also poses serious concerns to the humanity.

The large-scaled urban development has made some important contributions to the economy of India. It has expanded the country’s production system that has led to the way of large scale production of commodities and services. The expansion of the economy has led to the rise of towns and cities. Rapid urbanization in the whole world has led to growth of big cities along with a rise in the rate of population.

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Conclusion

Urbanization is an important factor for the growth of large cities and towns. It has led to the migration of people from the rural areas to the urban regions. The rate of urbanization has led to the growth of population and increased job opportunities. Urbanization also provides a better standard of living. The main disadvantage of urbanization is the rise in the rate of population and congestions of roads lead to traffic jams. It is also one of the major reasons behind the rise in the level of pollution. Thus, the government needs to bring in correct policies such that the level of urbanization can bring in more advantages than disadvantages.

 

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